Summary of the chapter 2: WATER
Chemically, water is a molecule composed of two hydrogen atoms and
one oxygen atom.
Is a liquid compound that is colourless, odourless and tasteless
NATURAL CYCLE OF WATER
On the way , the water carries along, dissolves and incorporates
substances in its path.
The composition part of the salts and minerals it encounters in its path
WATER QUALITY FOR LAUNDERING
The water it is in this environment that the detergent processes are carried
On the quality and quantity the water will depend a part of the result of
OPTIMAL WATER QUALITY for the laundry:
Clean, no debris in suspension, colourless
Potable water with no organic matter remains
Ideally 4-5ºHF (40-50 ppm)
< 20ºHF (100 ppm CO
PA = 0ºHF
TAC = < 25º HF
7.0 – 8.0
< 1000 ppm
< 0,1 ppm
< 0,05 mg/l
The water should be clean and transparent without suspended solids, colourless.
The clothes act as filter and retains everything in the water contains.
These come from the descomposing of living matter contained in the
The water must be of hygienic quality, but it can contaminate the
Water hardness is caused by the presence in the water of soluble calcium
and magnesium salts.
To certain temperature calcium and magnesium precipitate to form whitish
deposits on the machine and on the linen.
The water dilutes the calcareous rocks in its path, so calcium
concentracions vary in each area.
It forms calcareous
Incrustation in linen and machinery
The lime-scale reduces the termal conductivity
precipitating of heater
Decrease washing efficiency
It combine with the soaps to form insolubles salts
with alkalinity to form calcium soaps
PROBLEMS caused by the HARDENESS in the laundry: